I have a web site which includes a page that runs through the history of typeface designs. Three supplementary pages deal with special topics. One of them focuses on the typeface Cushing, which seems to be the one used for legibility in some old Bibles.
However, to narrow down the identification more positively, because one similar typeface also used in some Bibles appears to be the Mediaeval Egyptian from Bauer, I tried making use of the fact that this typeface was used in some pronouncing Bibles.
Due to the vagaries of English spelling, if one wishes to mark up English text with diacritics that indicate the pronounciation, without altering the spelling, one needs quite a few diacritical marks. (Some dictionaries also did it this way, instead of including a pronounciation in parentheses after the word; indeed, one pronouncing Bible noted that it used the system from Webster's dictionary with permission.) And, indeed, looking at the keys to the systems used, they used diacritical marks that I couldn't find among the characters in, say, the 1905 Linotype Specimen Book. Not even those used in an 1897 Bible.
So I may be missing a part of the story.