There is a demand for geometric Arabic typefaces. Latin structure is more geometric and symmetrical; western world seems more progressed so Arab world assumes what western world has done ought to be right, so maybe they should copy what the west does. I actually heard in a talk in Iran "Latin typefaces become more geometric to become more legible!". So people are trying to justify this with their own fantasy. This is not only in the script, it's happening in many aspects of Arab culture. If you take a look at Arabic script before 20th century you see how this adaptation of script has creeped into the writing system. The script used to be completely different. The way to justify Geometric Latinized Arabic is to find a similar example in Arabic script, even though Kufic is the earliest form of writing and has become obsolete for writing for centuries and is being used only for decoration. But Arabs want to look modern, so calling these typefaces Kufic is sugar coating a Latinized design. So I say Noto Kufi Arabic is not Kufic at all, It's Latinized. General Arab user doesn't see this. It looks cool to them, because it looks more like Latin. I guess now you can guess why there is not much Arabized typefaces out there?
Noto Sans existed before the Arabic part, so Arabic is an extension to "Noto Sans", ergo this "Noto Sans"+"Arabic" naming.
I can't tell! Because it looks Latinized to me and not Kufic at all. Maybe Monolinear is more moderate?
If you want to bring contrast to your typeface where do you get the contrast in Latin? It's from the tool that writes the script. It could be a broad nib pen or expansion pen. The angle of the pen causes the vertical strokes become thicker in Latin. This naturally happened because the most important part of the construction in Latin is in vertical strokes. If you make the the verticals thinner it would become much harder to recognize the shapes in text sizes. Actually Latin calligraphy starts with practicing lots of vertical strokes.
In Arabic the angle of the pen causes the contrast to be more horizontally stressed and this happened naturally because the construction of arabic is majorly distributed horizontally or in simpler words Arabic script is mostly horizontal strokes. If you make the horizontal strokes thinner in Arabic then it is Latinized or reversed contrast.