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John Hudson

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John Hudson
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  • Re: Cyrillic afii to Unicode table

    http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/opentype/aglfn13.txt

    0410;afii10017;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER A
    0411;afii10018;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER BE
    0412;afii10019;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER VE
    0413;afii10020;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GHE
    0414;afii10021;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DE
    0415;afii10022;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IE
    0401;afii10023;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IO
    0416;afii10024;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ZHE
    0417;afii10025;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ZE
    0418;afii10026;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER I
    0419;afii10027;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHORT I
    041A;afii10028;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER KA
    041B;afii10029;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EL
    041C;afii10030;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EM
    041D;afii10031;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EN
    041E;afii10032;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER O
    041F;afii10033;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER PE
    0420;afii10034;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ER
    0421;afii10035;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER ES
    0422;afii10036;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER TE
    0423;afii10037;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER U
    0424;afii10038;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER EF
    0425;afii10039;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER HA
    0426;afii10040;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER TSE
    0427;afii10041;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER CHE
    0428;afii10042;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHA
    0429;afii10043;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHCHA
    042A;afii10044;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER HARD SIGN
    042B;afii10045;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERU
    042C;afii10046;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SOFT SIGN
    042D;afii10047;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER E
    042E;afii10048;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YU
    042F;afii10049;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YA
    0490;afii10050;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GHE WITH UPTURN
    0402;afii10051;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DJE
    0403;afii10052;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER GJE
    0404;afii10053;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER UKRAINIAN IE
    0405;afii10054;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DZE
    0406;afii10055;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER BYELORUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN I
    0407;afii10056;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YI
    0408;afii10057;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER JE
    0409;afii10058;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER LJE
    040A;afii10059;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER NJE
    040B;afii10060;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER TSHE
    040C;afii10061;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER KJE
    040E;afii10062;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER SHORT U
    0430;afii10065;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER A
    0431;afii10066;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BE
    0432;afii10067;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER VE
    0433;afii10068;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE
    0434;afii10069;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DE
    0435;afii10070;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IE
    0451;afii10071;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IO
    0436;afii10072;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZHE
    0437;afii10073;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ZE
    0438;afii10074;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER I
    0439;afii10075;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHORT I
    043A;afii10076;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER KA
    043B;afii10077;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EL
    043C;afii10078;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EM
    043D;afii10079;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EN
    043E;afii10080;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER O
    043F;afii10081;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER PE
    0440;afii10082;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ER
    0441;afii10083;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER ES
    0442;afii10084;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TE
    0443;afii10085;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER U
    0444;afii10086;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER EF
    0445;afii10087;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HA
    0446;afii10088;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TSE
    0447;afii10089;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER CHE
    0448;afii10090;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHA
    0449;afii10091;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHCHA
    044A;afii10092;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER HARD SIGN
    044B;afii10093;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU
    044C;afii10094;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SOFT SIGN
    044D;afii10095;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER E
    044E;afii10096;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YU
    044F;afii10097;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YA
    0491;afii10098;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GHE WITH UPTURN
    0452;afii10099;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DJE
    0453;afii10100;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER GJE
    0454;afii10101;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER UKRAINIAN IE
    0455;afii10102;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DZE
    0456;afii10103;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER BYELORUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN I
    0457;afii10104;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YI
    0458;afii10105;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER JE
    0459;afii10106;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER LJE
    045A;afii10107;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER NJE
    045B;afii10108;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER TSHE
    045C;afii10109;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER KJE
    045E;afii10110;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SHORT U
    040F;afii10145;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER DZHE
    0462;afii10146;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YAT
    0472;afii10147;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER FITA
    0474;afii10148;CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER IZHITSA
    045F;afii10193;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER DZHE
    0463;afii10194;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YAT
    0473;afii10195;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER FITA
    0475;afii10196;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER IZHITSA
    04D9;afii10846;CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER SCHWA
  • Re: What are 'true italics'?

    But nowadays, it is used to mean "that sloped stuff used for emphasis", and thus if sloped Hebrew or even sloped Gujarati is used for emphasis, one will push the "I" button to get it (making it a "nominal Italic font" at least)... and thus, at some point, we have to recognize that the current meaning of a word is not the same as its original meaning.
    All that indicates is that the conventions of word processing software and corresponding font family are Latin-centric. HTML is better in this respect, tagging the use rather than the nominal style, and leaving it up to the style sheet to determine how e.g. emphasis or citation are displayed.

    But here you are talking about the one of the roles of italic type — 'for emphasis' —, whereas I was responding to your comment that 'traditional Armenian typeface often appeared either entirely in italics', which was not, as I pointed out, italic in the sense of the roles played by 'italic'. The point is simply this: not everything that is slanted is italic, either in origin or in use.

    In the case of Cyrillic, it might be noted that the italics included with many typefaces, including Times Roman, are cursive in nature, and thus do derive from Aldus and Arrighi.

    Pretty much every writing system in the world has both formal and cursive modes and construction: it's one of the distinctions that emerges in any mature scribal culture. Now, in the case of Cyrillic typefaces there is, thanks to Peter the Great, a direct correspondence between several styles of in Latin and Cyrillic, but the forms of the Cyrillic курсивный are derived from handwriting in Cyrillic script. So 'cursive' Cyrillic types marry local written forms with an imported typographic style — which in the West, traces back to the Italian chancery cursive hand of the latter 15th Century —, such that it makes some sense for English speakers to call Cyrillic cursive types 'italic' in a kind of third cousin twice removed familial sense.
  • Re: What are 'true italics'?

    I don't at all insist that an italic needs to be cursive, although that's certainly a) valid and b) historically the source of italic. The point to me is that italic is a secondary style — not secondary in the sense of subordinate — used for a number of aspects of textual differentiation and articulation. As a secondary style, I would say that the primary characteristic of italic is that it shares a similar weight and texture — and hence spatial frequency — to the roman style, so can be incorporated into blocks of roman text without either drawing the eye or forcing a change in spatial frequency tuning, as using bold as a secondary style would.

    So in terms of this characteristic, a sloped roman or an italic are both viable typographic options for a secondary style in the roles that 'italic' performs. But note my terminology: I don't say that a sloped roman is a viable italic, because I consider a sloped roman to be a thing in itself, not an italic. And when I refer to 'italic' with the quote marks, I refer to the typographic roles traditionally taken by italic, not to the style of type fulfilling those roles (remember that on typewriters, those roles were regularly fulfilled by underlining). And when I refer to viable typographic options I mean just that: options in the design and layout of text, in which context sloped roman and italic might not be alternative nominal italics found in different typefaces, but things that are both useful. [Somewhere around here I have an English translation of an Iranian novel set in my early Manticore typeface, which uses both italic and sloped roman — the latter mechanically slanted so suffering some distortions — for different aspects of the text, alongside the primary roman style.]

    The use of secondary styles in textual differentiation and articulation isn't limited to Latin or even to European script typography. Lots of text traditions around the world have developed conventional systems of mixed styles, and not all of them differentiate the same kinds of information or use a formal/cursive construction distinction. Notably, though, simply slanting one style to create a secondary style does not seem to have been a common practice anywhere. Why? Because from a design perspective slant is not an after-effect applied to a form, it is part of the making of a form, and it influences other aspects of the form, such as horizontal compression, modulation patterns and axis, etc..
  • Re: Could we hack into designing a Persian/Arabic braille font?

    As I wrote in Kent's comment reply I absolutely know that this is not a professional translation, but as I said in braille (if we don't want to go to the Grade 2) every letter has a substitute and you can basically translate the text by font conversion. 

    But you can also do it with text search/replace macro, and that will be more robust than a font substitution, and will produce Unicode encoded Braille characters with correct directionality built in.
  • Re: What are 'true italics'?

    Tom,
    Well, to be fair, it used to be normal for a sans "italic" to be a slanted roman plus optical corrections. I believe the simple slanted roman per se has never been terribly common, apart from faux italics created by operating systems.
    In Type 1 days, some fonts that used the PostScript slant operator for italics. I remember when Linotype sent me the Type 1 Helvetica fonts as source materials for Linotype Helvetica (later Helvetica World), I was surprised to open the italic fonts in FontLab and discover the actual glyph outlines were upright.
    _____

    On the subject of 'true italics', I don't think italics need cursive letter construction, but I do think they can benefit from employing single-storey a and g, which can of course have non-cursive construction even in upright type, as Futura demonstrates. This hybrid approach seems to me under-utilised.