After getting my first Mac in 1984, I signed up for the Apple developer program in order to get the "Font Editor" program that was part of the developer tools. Also included was an early looseleaf copy of Inside Macintosh. In the section about fonts, I recall that there were earlier, more generic names for the "city" fonts in screen captures illustrating font menus. "Chicago" was called "System" and so on. Unfortunately, I seem to have lost or tossed that copy of Inside Macintosh long ago, so I can't verify it.
Hmm. Not sure about that. I bought my first Mac a month after they were launched in 1984, so I've used every version of MacOS. I could be wrong, but my recollection was that the switch only happened once, from New York to Geneva, as part of one of the early system updates, maybe 2.0.